Sequences

πŸ†Practice series

What is a Sequence?

Mathematical sequences are a group of terms with a certain rule that dictates a certain operation must be performed and repeated in order to get from one term to the next.
The operation can be addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, or any other mathematical operation.

For example, the following is a basic numerical series:
1,2,3,4,5 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

To get from one term to the next in the sequence we add +1 +1 .
2=1+1 2 = 1+1
3=2+1 3 = 2+1
4=3+1 4 = 3+1
And so on.


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Test yourself on series!

einstein

Is there a term-to-term rule for the sequence below?

18 , 22 , 26 , 30

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Next, we will present some more complex sequences of numbers, including one of the most famous: the Fibonacci sequence.

some more complex sequences of numbers


The patterns of sequences vary from one to another.

Below, we present some examples of sequences with a different rule for each.

Note that the given rule can appear with: division, multiplication, addition, subtraction, or any combination of these.


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Examples of Sequences

Exercise 1

2,4,8,16,32 2, 4, 8, 16, 32
In this sequence, to get from one term to the next we will multiply by 2 2 .

2 2

4=2Γ—2 4=2\times2

8=2Γ—4 8=2\times4

16=2Γ—8 16=2\times8

And so on.


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Exercise 2

3,9,27,81,243 3, 9, 27, 81, 243
In this sequence, to get from one term to the next we need to multiply by 3 3 .
3 3

9=3Γ—3 9=3\times3

27=9Γ—3 27=9\times3

81=27Γ—3 81=27\times3

243=81Γ—3 243=81\times3

And so on.


Exercise 3

6,4,2,0,βˆ’2 6, 4, 2, 0, -2

In this sequence, to get from one term to the next we need to subtract 2 2 .

6 6

4=6βˆ’2 4=6-2

2=4βˆ’2 2=4-2

0=2βˆ’2 0=2-2

βˆ’2=0βˆ’2 -2=0-2


Do you know what the answer is?

Exercise 4

1000,500,250,125,62.5 1000, 500, 250, 125, 62.5
In this example, the operation used is division. In order to get from one term to the next, we divide the number by 2 2 .

1000 1000

500=1000:2 500=1000:2

250=500:2 250=500:2

125=250:2 125=250:2

62.6=125:2 62.6=125:2


Exercise 5

320,80,20,5 320, 80, 20, 5

The rule of this sequence is to divide each number by 4 4 to find the next number.

320 320

80=320:4 80=320:4

20=80:420=80:4

5=20:4 5=20:4


Check your understanding

Exercises

Try to work out the rule for each sequence:

  • 1,3.75,6.5,9.25,12 1,3.75,6.5,9.25,12
  • 7,49,343,2401,16807 7,49,343,2401,16807
  • 0,βˆ’15,βˆ’30,βˆ’45,βˆ’60,βˆ’75 0,-15,-30,-45,-60,-75
  • 891,297,99,33,11 891,297,99,33,11
  • 2,8,512,134217728 2,8,512,134217728

Review Questions

What are sequences in mathematics?

Sequences are ordered sets of numbers that follow a rule or pattern.


Do you think you will be able to solve it?

What is a sequence and a sequence rule?

A sequence is a set of ordered numbers. The numbers follow a rule that tells us how to obtain the numbers of the sequence using the previous ones. Many times the rules are governed by the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, or some combination thereof.


What types of sequences are there in mathematics?

There are many types of sequences. For example, increasing and decreasing sequences, in which the numbers are either increasing or decreasing and following a certain pattern. There are also very famous sequences that have their own name, such as the Fibonacci sequence. In this series, the two previous numbers must be added to obtain the next number.


Test your knowledge

examples with solutions for series

Exercise #1

Look at the following set of numbers and determine if there is any property, if so, what is it?

94,96,98,100,102,104 94,96,98,100,102,104

Video Solution

Step-by-Step Solution

It can be seen that the difference between each number is 2.

That is, between each jump 2 is added to the next number:

94+2=96 94+2=96

96+2=98 96+2=98

98+2=100 98+2=100

Etcetera

Answer

+2 +2

Exercise #2

12 ☐ 10 ☐ 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Which numbers are missing from the sequence so that the sequence has a term-to-term rule?

Video Solution

Step-by-Step Solution

It is possible to see that there is a difference of one number between each number.

That is, 1 is added to each number and it will be the next number:

1+1=2 1+1=2

2+1=3 2+1=3

3+1=4 3+1=4

Etcetera. Therefore, the next numbers missing in the sequence will be:8+1=9 8+1=9

10+1=11 10+1=11

Answer

11 , 9

Exercise #3

The table shows the number of balls and the number of courts at the school:

246123BallsCourts

.

Complete:

Number of balls is _________ than the number of courts

Video Solution

Step-by-Step Solution

It is possible to see that if you multiply each number from the right column by 2, you get the number from the left column.

That is:1Γ—2=2 1\times2=2

2Γ—2=4 2\times2=4

3Γ—2=6 3\times2=6

Therefore, the number of balls is 2 times greater than the number of courts.

Answer

2 times greater

Exercise #4

Below is a sequence represented by squares. How many squares will there be in the 8th element?

Video Solution

Step-by-Step Solution

It can be seen that for each successive number, a square is added in length and one in width.

Therefore, the rule using the variable n is:

a(n)=n2 a(n)=n^2

Therefore, the eighth term will be:

n2=8Γ—8=16 n^2=8\times8=16

Answer

64 64

Exercise #5

Below is the rule for a sequence written in terms of n n :

2n+2 2n+2

Calculate the value of the 11th element.

Video Solution

Step-by-Step Solution

We calculate by replacingn=11 n=11

2Γ—11+2= 2\times11+2=

First we solve the multiplication exercise and then we add 2:

22+2=24 22+2=24

Answer

24 24

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